Synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane for neurotransmission. Subsequently, these vesicles are retrieved, and new vesicles are reconstituted locally at synapses. However, how exocytosis and endocytosis are controlled spatially and temporally remains enigmatic. We developed novel techniques in electron microscopy to capture membrane and protein dynamics with millisecond temporal resolution. In the seminar, I will discuss our recent progress on when, where, and how vesicles are consumed and recycled at synaptic terminals.